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Perl 5.8.0 Documentation

NAME

perl - Practical Extraction and Report Language

SYNOPSIS

perl-sTuU ] [ -hv ] [ -V[:configvar] ] [ -cw ] [ -d[:debugger] ] [ -D[number/list] ] [ -pna ] [ -Fpattern ] [ -l[octal] ] [ -0[octal] ] [ -Idir ] [ -m[-]module ] [ -M[-]'module...' ] [ -P ] [ -S ] [ -x[dir] ] [ -i[extension] ] [ -e 'command' ]      [ -- ] [ programfile ] [ argument ]...

If you're new to Perl, you should start with perlintro, which is a general intro for beginners and provides some background to help you navigate the rest of Perl's extensive documentation.

For ease of access, the Perl manual has been split up into several sections.

Overview

 
    perl		Perl overview (this section)
    perlintro		Perl introduction for beginners
    perltoc		Perl documentation table of contents  

Tutorials

 
    perlreftut		Perl references short introduction
    perldsc		Perl data structures intro
    perllol		Perl data structures: arrays of arrays

    perlrequick		Perl regular expressions quick start
    perlretut		Perl regular expressions tutorial

    perlboot		Perl OO tutorial for beginners
    perltoot		Perl OO tutorial, part 1
    perltooc		Perl OO tutorial, part 2
    perlbot		Perl OO tricks and examples

    perlstyle		Perl style guide

    perltrap		Perl traps for the unwary
    perldebtut		Perl debugging tutorial

    perlfaq		Perl frequently asked questions
      perlfaq1		General Questions About Perl
      perlfaq2		Obtaining and Learning about Perl
      perlfaq3		Programming Tools
      perlfaq4		Data Manipulation
      perlfaq5		Files and Formats
      perlfaq6		Regexes
      perlfaq7		Perl Language Issues
      perlfaq8		System Interaction
      perlfaq9		Networking  

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Reference Manual

 
    perlsyn		Perl syntax
    perldata		Perl data structures
    perlop		Perl operators and precedence
    perlsub		Perl subroutines
    perlfunc		Perl built-in functions
      perlopentut	Perl open() tutorial
      perlpacktut       Perl pack() and unpack() tutorial
    perlpod		Perl plain old documentation
    perlpodspec         Perl plain old documentation format specification
    perlrun		Perl execution and options
    perldiag		Perl diagnostic messages
    perllexwarn		Perl warnings and their control
    perldebug		Perl debugging
    perlvar		Perl predefined variables
    perlre		Perl regular expressions, the rest of the story
    perlref		Perl references, the rest of the story
    perlform		Perl formats
    perlobj		Perl objects
    perltie		Perl objects hidden behind simple variables
      perldbmfilter	Perl DBM filters

    perlipc		Perl interprocess communication
    perlfork		Perl fork() information
    perlnumber		Perl number semantics

    perlthrtut		Perl threads tutorial
      perlothrtut	  Old Perl threads tutorial

    perlport		Perl portability guide
    perllocale		Perl locale support
    perluniintro	Perl Unicode introduction
    perlunicode		Perl Unicode support
    perlebcdic		Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms

    perlsec		Perl security

    perlmod		Perl modules: how they work
    perlmodlib		Perl modules: how to write and use
    perlmodstyle	Perl modules: how to write modules with style
    perlmodinstall	Perl modules: how to install from CPAN
    perlnewmod		Perl modules: preparing a new module for distribution

    perlutil		utilities packaged with the Perl distribution

    perlcompile		Perl compiler suite intro

    perlfilter		Perl source filters  

Internals and C Language Interface

 
    perlembed		Perl ways to embed perl in your C or C++ application
    perldebguts		Perl debugging guts and tips
    perlxstut		Perl XS tutorial
    perlxs		Perl XS application programming interface
    perlclib		Internal replacements for standard C library functions
    perlguts		Perl internal functions for those doing extensions
    perlcall		Perl calling conventions from C

    perlapi		Perl API listing (autogenerated)
    perlintern		Perl internal functions (autogenerated)
    perliol		C API for Perl's implementation of IO in Layers
    perlapio		Perl internal IO abstraction interface

    perlhack		Perl hackers guide  

Miscellaneous

 
    perlbook		Perl book information
    perltodo		Perl things to do

    perlhist		Perl history records
    perldelta		Perl changes since previous version
    perl572delta	Perl changes in version 5.7.2
    perl571delta	Perl changes in version 5.7.1
    perl570delta	Perl changes in version 5.7.0
    perl561delta	Perl changes in version 5.6.1
    perl56delta		Perl changes in version 5.6
    perl5005delta	Perl changes in version 5.005
    perl5004delta	Perl changes in version 5.004  

Platform-Specific

 
    perlaix		Perl notes for AIX
    perlamiga		Perl notes for AmigaOS
    perlapollo		Perl notes for Apollo DomainOS
    perlbeos		Perl notes for BeOS
    perlbs2000		Perl notes for POSIX-BC BS2000
    perlce		Perl notes for WinCE
    perlcygwin		Perl notes for Cygwin
    perldgux		Perl notes for DG/UX
    perldos		Perl notes for DOS
    perlepoc		Perl notes for EPOC
    perlfreebsd		Perl notes for FreeBSD
    perlhpux		Perl notes for HP-UX
    perlhurd		Perl notes for Hurd
    perlirix		Perl notes for Irix
    perlmachten		Perl notes for Power MachTen
    perlmacos		Perl notes for Mac OS (Classic)
    perlmint		Perl notes for MiNT
    perlmpeix		Perl notes for MPE/iX
    perlnetware		Perl notes for NetWare
    perlos2		Perl notes for OS/2
    perlos390		Perl notes for OS/390
    perlplan9		Perl notes for Plan 9
    perlqnx		Perl notes for QNX
    perlsolaris 	Perl notes for Solaris
    perltru64		Perl notes for Tru64
    perluts             Perl notes for UTS
    perlvmesa		Perl notes for VM/ESA
    perlvms		Perl notes for VMS
    perlvos		Perl notes for Stratus VOS
    perlwin32		Perl notes for Windows
  

By default, the manpages listed above are installed in the /usr/local/man/ directory.

Extensive additional documentation for Perl modules is available. The default configuration for perl will place this additional documentation in the /usr/local/lib/perl5/man directory (or else in the man subdirectory of the Perl library directory). Some of this additional documentation is distributed standard with Perl, but you'll also find documentation for third-party modules there.

You should be able to view Perl's documentation with your man(1) program by including the proper directories in the appropriate start-up files, or in the MANPATH environment variable. To find out where the configuration has installed the manpages, type:

 
    perl -V:man.dir  

If the directories have a common stem, such as /usr/local/man/man1 and /usr/local/man/man3, you need only to add that stem (/usr/local/man) to your man(1) configuration files or your MANPATH environment variable. If they do not share a stem, you'll have to add both stems.

If that doesn't work for some reason, you can still use the supplied perldoc script to view module information. You might also look into getting a replacement man program.

If something strange has gone wrong with your program and you're not sure where you should look for help, try the -w switch first. It will often point out exactly where the trouble is.

DESCRIPTION

Perl is a language optimized for scanning arbitrary text files, extracting information from those text files, and printing reports based on that information. It's also a good language for many system management tasks. The language is intended to be practical (easy to use, efficient, complete) rather than beautiful (tiny, elegant, minimal).

Perl combines (in the author's opinion, anyway) some of the best features of C, sed, awk, and sh, so people familiar with those languages should have little difficulty with it. (Language historians will also note some vestiges of csh, Pascal, and even BASIC-PLUS.) Expression syntax corresponds closely to C expression syntax. Unlike most Unix utilities, Perl does not arbitrarily limit the size of your data--if you've got the memory, Perl can slurp in your whole file as a single string. Recursion is of unlimited depth. And the tables used by hashes (sometimes called "associative arrays") grow as necessary to prevent degraded performance. Perl can use sophisticated pattern matching techniques to scan large amounts of data quickly. Although optimized for scanning text, Perl can also deal with binary data, and can make dbm files look like hashes. Setuid Perl scripts are safer than C programs through a dataflow tracing mechanism that prevents many stupid security holes.

If you have a problem that would ordinarily use sed or awk or sh, but it exceeds their capabilities or must run a little faster, and you don't want to write the silly thing in C, then Perl may be for you. There are also translators to turn your sed and awk scripts into Perl scripts.

But wait, there's more...

Begun in 1993 (see perlhist), Perl version 5 is nearly a complete rewrite that provides the following additional benefits:

  

PODS - Supporting Manpages

         
         

Perl PODs

 
Porting/patching    Appropriate format for patches to the perl source tree
Porting/pumpkin     Notes on handling the Perl Patch Pumpkin And Porting Perl
Porting/repository  Using the Perl repository
jpl/docs/Tutorial   Perl and Java
lib/Encode/PerlIO   a detailed document on Encode and PerlIO
lib/Encode/Supported
                    Encodings supported by Encode
lib/Locale/Constants
                    constants for Locale codes
lib/Locale/Country  ISO codes for country identification (ISO 3166)
lib/Locale/Currency ISO three letter codes for currency identification (ISO 4217)
lib/Locale/Language ISO two letter codes for language identification (ISO 639)
lib/Locale/Maketext framework for localization
lib/Locale/Maketext/TPJ13
                    article about software localization
lib/Locale/Script   ISO codes for script identification (ISO 15924)
lib/Net/libnetFAQ   libnet Frequently Asked Questions
lib/POSIX           Perl interface to IEEE Std 1003.1
lib/Pod/t/basic     Test of various basic POD features in translators.
lib/Pod/t/htmlescp  
lib/Pod/t/htmlview  
lib/Test/Tutorial   A tutorial about writing really basic tests
lib/Win32           Interfaces to some Win32 API Functions
pod/perl            Practical Extraction and Report Language
pod/perl5004delta   what's new for perl5.004
pod/perl5005delta   what's new for perl5.005
pod/perl561delta    what's new for perl v5.6.x
pod/perl56delta     what's new for perl v5.6.0
pod/perl570delta    what's new for perl v5.7.0
pod/perl571delta    what's new for perl v5.7.1
pod/perl572delta    what's new for perl v5.7.2
pod/perlaix         Perl version 5 on IBM Unix (AIX) systems
pod/perlamiga       Perl under Amiga OS
pod/perlapi         autogenerated documentation for the perl public API
pod/perlapio        perl's IO abstraction interface.
pod/perlapollo      Perl version 5 on Apollo DomainOS
pod/perlbeos        Perl version 5 on BeOS
pod/perlbook        Perl book information
pod/perlboot        Beginner's Object-Oriented Tutorial
pod/perlbot         Bag'o Object Tricks (the BOT)
pod/perlbs2000      building and installing Perl for BS2000.
pod/perlcall        Perl calling conventions from C
pod/perlce          
pod/perlclib        Internal replacements for standard C library functions
pod/perlcn          简体中文 Perl 指南
pod/perlcompile     Introduction to the Perl Compiler-Translator
pod/perlcygwin      Perl for Cygwin
pod/perldata        Perl data types
pod/perldbmfilter   Perl DBM Filters
pod/perldebguts     Guts of Perl debugging
pod/perldebtut      Perl debugging tutorial
pod/perldebug       Perl debugging
pod/perldelta       what is new for perl v5.8.0
pod/perldgux        Perl under DG/UX.
pod/perldiag        various Perl diagnostics
pod/perldos         
pod/perldsc         Perl Data Structures Cookbook
pod/perlebcdic      Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms
pod/perlembed       how to embed perl in your C program
pod/perlepoc        Perl for EPOC
pod/perlfaq         frequently asked questions about Perl 
pod/perlfaq1        General Questions About Perl 
pod/perlfaq2        Obtaining and Learning about Perl 
pod/perlfaq3        Programming Tools 
pod/perlfaq4        Data Manipulation 
pod/perlfaq5        Files and Formats 
pod/perlfaq6        Regular Expressions 
pod/perlfaq7        General Perl Language Issues 
pod/perlfaq8        System Interaction
pod/perlfaq9        Networking 
pod/perlfilter      Source Filters
pod/perlfork        Perl's fork() emulation
pod/perlform        Perl formats
pod/perlfreebsd     Perl version 5 on FreeBSD systems
pod/perlfunc        Perl builtin functions
pod/perlguts        Introduction to the Perl API
pod/perlhack        How to hack at the Perl internals
pod/perlhist        the Perl history records
pod/perlhpux        Perl version 5 on Hewlett-Packard Unix (HP-UX) systems
pod/perlhurd        Perl version 5 on Hurd
pod/perlintern      autogenerated documentation of purely internal Perl functions
pod/perlintro       a brief introduction and overview of Perl
pod/perliol         C API for Perl's implementation of IO in Layers.
pod/perlipc         Perl interprocess communication (signals, fifos, pipes, 
		    safe subprocesses, sockets, and semaphores)
pod/perlirix        Perl version 5 on Irix systems
pod/perljp          泣塑胳 Perl ガイド
pod/perlko          Perl苞 茄惫绢 牢内爹
pod/perllexwarn     Perl Lexical Warnings
pod/perllocale      Perl locale handling (internationalization and localization)
pod/perllol         Manipulating Arrays of Arrays in Perl
pod/perlmachten     Perl version 5 on Power MachTen systems
pod/perlmacos       Perl under Mac OS (Classic)
pod/perlmint        Perl version 5 on Atari MiNT
pod/perlmod         Perl modules (packages and symbol tables)
pod/perlmodinstall  Installing CPAN Modules
pod/perlmodlib      
pod/perlmodstyle    Perl module style guide
pod/perlmpeix       Perl/iX for HP e3000 MPE
pod/perlnetware     
pod/perlnewmod      preparing a new module for distribution
pod/perlnumber      semantics of numbers and numeric operations in Perl
pod/perlobj         Perl objects
pod/perlop          Perl operators and precedence
pod/perlopentut     tutorial on opening things in Perl
pod/perlos2         Perl under OS/2, DOS, Win0.3*, Win0.95 and WinNT.
pod/perlos390       building and installing Perl for OS/390 and z/OS
pod/perlothrtut     old tutorial on threads in Perl
pod/perlpacktut     tutorial on pack and unpack
pod/perlplan9       Plan 9-specific documentation for Perl
pod/perlpod         
pod/perlpodspec     Plain Old Documentation: format specification and notes
pod/perlport        Writing portable Perl
pod/perlqnx         Perl version 5 on QNX
pod/perlre          Perl regular expressions
pod/perlref         Perl references and nested data structures
pod/perlreftut      Mark's very short tutorial about references
pod/perlrequick     Perl regular expressions quick start
pod/perlretut       Perl regular expressions tutorial
pod/perlrun         how to execute the Perl interpreter
pod/perlsec         Perl security
pod/perlsolaris     Perl version 5 on Solaris systems
pod/perlstyle       Perl style guide
pod/perlsub         Perl subroutines
pod/perlsyn         Perl syntax
pod/perlthrtut      tutorial on threads in Perl
pod/perltie         how to hide an object class in a simple variable
pod/perltoc         perl documentation table of contents
pod/perltodo        Perl TO-DO List
pod/perltooc        Tom's OO Tutorial for Class Data in Perl
pod/perltoot        Tom's object-oriented tutorial for perl
pod/perltrap        Perl traps for the unwary
pod/perltru64       Perl version 5 on Tru64 systems
pod/perltw          タ砰いゅ Perl 玭
pod/perlunicode     Unicode support in Perl
pod/perluniintro    Perl Unicode introduction
pod/perlutil        utilities packaged with the Perl distribution
pod/perluts         Perl under UTS
pod/perlvar         Perl predefined variables
pod/perlvmesa       building and installing Perl for VM/ESA.
pod/perlvms         VMS-specific documentation for Perl
pod/perlvos         Perl for Stratus VOS
pod/perlwin32       
pod/perlxs          XS language reference manual
pod/perlxstut       Tutorial for writing XSUBs
vms/perlvms         VMS-specific documentation for Perl
x2p/a2p             Awk to Perl translator
  

Modules - Perl Module Library

Perl Modules

 
AnyDBM_File              provide framework for multiple DBMs
Attribute::Handlers      Simpler definition of attribute handlers
AutoLoader               load subroutines only on demand
AutoSplit                split a package for autoloading
B                        The Perl Compiler
B::Asmdata               Autogenerated data about Perl ops, used to generate bytecode
B::Assembler             Assemble Perl bytecode
B::Bblock                Walk basic blocks
B::Bytecode              Perl compiler's bytecode backend
B::C                     Perl compiler's C backend
B::CC                    Perl compiler's optimized C translation backend
B::Concise               Walk Perl syntax tree, printing concise info about ops
B::Debug                 Walk Perl syntax tree, printing debug info about ops
B::Deparse               Perl compiler backend to produce perl code
B::Disassembler          Disassemble Perl bytecode
B::Lint                  Perl lint
B::Showlex               Show lexical variables used in functions or files
B::Stackobj              Helper module for CC backend
B::Stash                 show what stashes are loaded
B::Terse                 Walk Perl syntax tree, printing terse info about ops
B::Xref                  Generates cross reference reports for Perl programs
Benchmark                benchmark running times of Perl code
Bundle::LWP              A bundle to install all libwww-perl related modules
ByteLoader               load byte compiled perl code
CGI                      Simple Common Gateway Interface Class
CGI::Apache              Backward compatibility module for CGI.pm
CGI::Carp                CGI routines for writing to the HTTPD (or other) error log
CGI::Cookie              Interface to Netscape Cookies
CGI::Fast                CGI Interface for Fast CGI
CGI::Pretty              module to produce nicely formatted HTML code
CGI::Push                Simple Interface to Server Push
CGI::Switch              Backward compatibility module for defunct CGI::Switch
CGI::Util                Internal utilities used by CGI module
CPAN                     query, download and build perl modules from CPAN sites
CPAN::FirstTime          Utility for CPAN::Config file Initialization
CPAN::Nox                Wrapper around CPAN.pm without using any XS module
Carp heavy machinery     no user serviceable parts inside
Class::ISA               report the search path for a class's ISA tree
Class::Struct            declare struct-like datatypes as Perl classes
Config                   access Perl configuration information
Cwd                      get pathname of current working directory
DB                       programmatic interface to the Perl debugging API
Data::Dumper             stringified perl data structures, suitable for both 
			 printing and eval
Devel::DProf             a Perl code profiler
Devel::Peek              A data debugging tool for the XS programmer
Devel::SelfStubber       generate stubs for a SelfLoading module
Digest::                 Modules that calculate message digests
Digest::MD5              Perl interface to the MD5 Algorithm
DirHandle                supply object methods for directory handles
Dumpvalue                provides screen dump of Perl data.
DynaLoader               Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code
Encode                   character encodings
Encode::Alias            alias definitions to encodings
Encode::Byte             Single Byte Encodings
Encode::CJKConstants.pm  Internally used by Encode::??::ISO_2022_*
Encode::CN               China-based Chinese Encodings
Encode::CN::HZ           internally used by Encode::CN
Encode::Config           internally used by Encode
Encode::EBCDIC           EBCDIC Encodings
Encode::Encoder          Object Oriented Encoder
Encode::Encoding         Encode Implementation Base Class
Encode::Guess            Guesses encoding from data
Encode::JP               Japanese Encodings
Encode::JP::H2Z          internally used by Encode::JP::2022_JP*
Encode::JP::JIS7         internally used by Encode::JP
Encode::KR               Korean Encodings
Encode::KR::2022_KR      internally used by Encode::KR
Encode::MIME::Header     MIME 'B' and 'Q' header encoding
Encode::PerlIO           a detailed document on Encode and PerlIO
Encode::Supported        Encodings supported by Encode
Encode::Symbol           Symbol Encodings
Encode::TW               Taiwan-based Chinese Encodings
Encode::Unicode          Various Unicode Transformation Formats
English                  use nice English (or awk) names for ugly punctuation 
 			 variables
Env                      perl module that imports environment variables as scalars
			 or arrays
Errno                    System errno constants
Exporter                 Implements default import method for modules
Exporter::Heavy          Exporter guts
ExtUtils::Command        utilities to replace common UNIX commands in Makefiles etc.
ExtUtils::Command::MM    Commands for the MM's to use in Makefiles
ExtUtils::Constant       generate XS code to import C header constants
ExtUtils::Embed          Utilities for embedding Perl in C/C++ applications
ExtUtils::Install        install files from here to there
ExtUtils::Installed      Inventory management of installed modules
ExtUtils::Liblist        determine libraries to use and how to use them
ExtUtils::MM             OS adjusted ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass
ExtUtils::MM_Any         Platform agnostic MM methods
ExtUtils::MM_BeOS        methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
ExtUtils::MM_Cygwin      methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
ExtUtils::MM_DOS         DOS specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix
ExtUtils::MM_MacOS       methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
ExtUtils::MM_NW5         methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
ExtUtils::MM_OS2         methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
ExtUtils::MM_UWIN        U/WIN specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix
ExtUtils::MM_Unix        methods used by ExtUtils::MakeMaker
ExtUtils::MM_VMS         methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
ExtUtils::MM_Win32       methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
ExtUtils::MM_Win95       method to customize MakeMaker for Win9X
ExtUtils::MY             ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass for customization
ExtUtils::MakeMaker      create an extension Makefile
ExtUtils::Manifest       utilities to write and check a MANIFEST file
ExtUtils::Miniperl, writemain
                         write the C code for perlmain.c
ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap    make a bootstrap file for use by DynaLoader
ExtUtils::Mksymlists     write linker options files for dynamic extension
ExtUtils::Packlist       manage .packlist files
ExtUtils::testlib        add blib/* directories to @INC
Fatal                    replace functions with equivalents which succeed or die
Fcntl                    load the C Fcntl.h defines
File::Compare            Compare files or filehandles
File::Copy               Copy files or filehandles
File::DosGlob            DOS like globbing and then some
File::Find               Traverse a directory tree.
File::Glob               Perl extension for BSD glob routine
File::Path               create or remove directory trees
File::Spec               portably perform operations on file names
File::Spec::Cygwin       methods for Cygwin file specs
File::Spec::Epoc         methods for Epoc file specs
File::Spec::Functions    portably perform operations on file names
File::Spec::Mac          File::Spec for Mac OS (Classic)
File::Spec::Unix         File::Spec for Unix, base for other File::Spec modules
File::Spec::VMS          methods for VMS file specs
File::Spec::Win32        methods for Win32 file specs
File::Temp               return name and handle of a temporary file safely
File::stat               by-name interface to Perl's built-in stat() functions
FileCache                keep more files open than the system permits
FileHandle               supply object methods for filehandles
Filter::Simple           Simplified source filtering
Filter::Util::Call       Perl Source Filter Utility Module
FindBin                  Locate directory of original perl script
Getopt::Long             Extended processing of command line options
HTML::Entities           Encode or decode strings with HTML entities
HTML::Filter             Filter HTML text through the parser
HTML::Form               Class that represents HTML forms
HTML::HeadParser         Parse <HEAD> section of a HTML document
HTML::LinkExtor          Extract links from an HTML document
HTML::Parser             HTML parser class
HTML::PullParser         Alternative HTML::Parser interface
HTML::Stream             HTML output stream class, and some markup utilities
HTML::Tagset             data tables useful in parsing HTML
HTML::TokeParser         Alternative HTML::Parser interface
HTTP::Cookies            Cookie storage and management
HTTP::Daemon             a simple http server class
HTTP::Date               date conversion routines
HTTP::Headers            Class encapsulating HTTP Message headers
HTTP::Headers::Util      Header value parsing utility functions
HTTP::Message            Class encapsulating HTTP messages
HTTP::Request            Class encapsulating HTTP Requests
HTTP::Request::Common    Construct common HTTP::Request objects
HTTP::Response           Class encapsulating HTTP Responses
HTTP::Status             HTTP Status code processing
Hash::Util               A selection of general-utility hash subroutines
I18N::Collate            compare 8-bit scalar data according to the current locale
I18N::LangTags           functions for dealing with RFC3066-style language tags
I18N::LangTags::List     tags and names for human languages
I18N::Langinfo           query locale information
IO                       load various IO modules
IO::Dir                  supply object methods for directory handles
IO::File                 supply object methods for filehandles
IO::Handle               supply object methods for I/O handles
IO::Pipe                 supply object methods for pipes
IO::Poll                 Object interface to system poll call
IO::Seekable             supply seek based methods for I/O objects
IO::Select               OO interface to the select system call
IO::Socket               Object interface to socket communications
IO::Socket::INET         Object interface for AF_INET domain sockets
IO::Socket::UNIX         Object interface for AF_UNIX domain sockets
IPC::Msg                 SysV Msg IPC object class
IPC::Open2, open2        open a process for both reading and writing
IPC::Open3, open3        open a process for reading, writing, and error handling
IPC::Semaphore           SysV Semaphore IPC object class
IPC::SysV                SysV IPC constants
LWP                      The World-Wide Web library for Perl
LWP::ConnCache           Connection cache manager
LWP::Debug               debug routines for the libwww-perl library
LWP::MediaTypes          guess media type for a file or a URL
LWP::MemberMixin         Member access mixin class
LWP::Protocol            Base class for LWP protocols
LWP::RobotUA             A class for Web Robots
LWP::UserAgent           A WWW UserAgent class
List::Util               A selection of general-utility list subroutines
Locale::Constants        constants for Locale codes
Locale::Country          ISO codes for country identification (ISO 3166)
Locale::Currency         ISO three letter codes for currency identification (ISO 4217)
Locale::Language         ISO two letter codes for language identification (ISO 639)
Locale::Maketext         framework for localization
Locale::Maketext::TPJ13  article about software localization
Locale::Script           ISO codes for script identification (ISO 15924)
MIME::Base64             Encoding and decoding of base64 strings
MIME::QuotedPrint        Encoding and decoding of quoted-printable strings
Math::BigFloat           Arbitrary size floating point math package
Math::BigInt             Arbitrary size integer math package
Math::BigInt::Calc       Pure Perl module to support Math::BigInt
Math::BigRat             arbitrarily big rationals
Math::Complex            complex numbers and associated mathematical functions
Math::Trig               trigonometric functions
Memoize                  Make functions faster by trading space for time
Memoize::AnyDBM_File     glue to provide EXISTS for AnyDBM_File for Storable use
Memoize::Expire          Plug-in module for automatic expiration of memoized values
Memoize::ExpireFile      test for Memoize expiration semantics
Memoize::ExpireTest      test for Memoize expiration semantics
Memoize::NDBM_File       glue to provide EXISTS for NDBM_File for Storable use
Memoize::SDBM_File       glue to provide EXISTS for SDBM_File for Storable use
Memoize::Storable        store Memoized data in Storable database
NEXT.pm                  Provide a pseudo-class NEXT that allows method redispatch
Net::Cmd                 Network Command class (as used by FTP, SMTP etc)
Net::Config              Local configuration data for libnet
Net::Domain              Attempt to evaluate the current host's internet name and 
			 domain
Net::FTP                 FTP Client class
Net::HTTP                Low-level HTTP client connection
Net::HTTP::NB            Non-blocking HTTP client
Net::NNTP                NNTP Client class
Net::Netrc               OO interface to users netrc file
Net::POP3                Post Office Protocol 3 Client class (RFC1939)
Net::Ping                check a remote host for reachability
Net::SMTP                Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Client
Net::Time                time and daytime network client interface
Net::hostent             by-name interface to Perl's built-in gethost*() functions
Net::netent              by-name interface to Perl's built-in getnet*() functions
Net::protoent            by-name interface to Perl's built-in getproto*() functions
Net::servent             by-name interface to Perl's built-in getserv*() functions
O                        Generic interface to Perl Compiler backends
Opcode                   Disable named opcodes when compiling perl code
POSIX                    Perl interface to IEEE Std 1003.1
Perl/Pollution/Portability


                         
PerlIO                   On demand loader for PerlIO layers and root of PerlIO::*
			 name space
PerlIO::encoding         encoding layer
PerlIO::scalar           support module for in-memory IO.
PerlIO::via              Helper class for PerlIO layers implemented in perl
PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint PerlIO layer for quoted-printable strings
Pod::Checker, podchecker()
                         check pod documents for syntax errors
Pod::Escapes             for resolving Pod E<...> sequences
Pod::Find                find POD documents in directory trees
Pod::Functions           Group Perl's functions a la perlfunc.pod
Pod::Html                module to convert pod files to HTML
Pod::InputObjects        objects representing POD input paragraphs, commands, etc.
Pod::LaTeX               Convert Pod data to formatted Latex
Pod::Man                 Convert POD data to formatted *roff input
Pod::ParseLink           Parse an L<> formatting code in POD text
Pod::ParseUtils          helpers for POD parsing and conversion
Pod::Parser              base class for creating POD filters and translators
Pod::Plainer             Perl extension for converting Pod to old style Pod.
Pod::Select, podselect() extract selected sections of POD from input
Pod::Text                Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text
Pod::Text::Color         Convert POD data to formatted color ASCII text
Pod::Text::Overstrike    Convert POD data to formatted overstrike text
Pod::Text::Termcap       Convert POD data to ASCII text with format escapes
Pod::Tree                Create a static syntax tree for a POD
Pod::Tree::HTML          Generate HTML from a Pod::Tree
Pod::Tree::Node          nodes in a Pod::Tree
Pod::Tree::PerlBin       translate program PODs to HTML
Pod::Tree::PerlDist      translate Perl distribution documentation to HTML
Pod::Tree::PerlFunc      translate perlfunc.pod to HTML
Pod::Tree::PerlLib       translate module PODs to HTML
Pod::Tree::PerlMap       map names to URLs
Pod::Tree::PerlPod       translate Perl PODs to HTML
Pod::Tree::PerlTop       generate a top-level index for Perl PODs
Pod::Tree::Pod           Convert a Pod::Tree back to a POD
Pod::Usage, pod2usage()  print a usage message from embedded pod documentation
SDBM_File                Tied access to sdbm files
Safe                     Compile and execute code in restricted compartments
Scalar::Util             A selection of general-utility scalar subroutines
Search::Dict, look       search for key in dictionary file
SelectSaver              save and restore selected file handle
SelfLoader               load functions only on demand
Shell                    run shell commands transparently within perl
Socket, sockaddr_in, sockaddr_un, inet_aton, inet_ntoa
                         load the C socket.h defines and structure manipulators
Storable                 persistence for Perl data structures
Switch                   A switch statement for Perl
Symbol                   manipulate Perl symbols and their names
Sys::Hostname            Try every conceivable way to get hostname
Sys::Syslog, openlog, closelog, setlogmask, syslog
                         Perl interface to the UNIX syslog(3) calls
Term::ANSIColor          Color screen output using ANSI escape sequences
Term::Cap                Perl termcap interface
Term::Complete           Perl word completion module
Term::ReadLine           Perl interface to various readline packages. 
Test                     provides a simple framework for writing test scripts
Test::Builder            Backend for building test libraries
Test::Harness            run perl standard test scripts with statistics
Test::Harness::Assert    simple assert
Test::Harness::Iterator  Internal Test::Harness Iterator
Test::Harness::Straps    detailed analysis of test results
Test::More               yet another framework for writing test scripts
Test::Simple             Basic utilities for writing tests.
Test::Tutorial           A tutorial about writing really basic tests
Text::Balanced           Extract delimited text sequences from strings.
Text::ParseWords         parse text into an array of tokens or array of arrays
Text::Soundex            Implementation of the Soundex Algorithm as Described by Knuth
Text::Tabs               expand and unexpand tabs per the unix expand(1) and 
			 unexpand(1)
Text::Wrap               line wrapping to form simple paragraphs
Thread                   manipulate threads in Perl (for old code only)
Thread::Queue            thread-safe queues
Thread::Semaphore        thread-safe semaphores
Tie::Array               base class for tied arrays
Tie::File                Access the lines of a disk file via a Perl array
Tie::Handle, Tie::StdHandle
                         base class definitions for tied handles
Tie::Hash, Tie::StdHash, Tie::ExtraHash
                         base class definitions for tied hashes
Tie::Memoize             add data to hash when needed
Tie::RefHash             use references as hash keys
Tie::Scalar, Tie::StdScalar
                         base class definitions for tied scalars
Tie::SubstrHash          Fixed-table-size, fixed-key-length hashing
Time::HiRes              High resolution alarm, sleep, gettimeofday, interval timers
Time::Local              efficiently compute time from local and GMT time
Time::gmtime             by-name interface to Perl's built-in gmtime() function
Time::localtime          by-name interface to Perl's built-in localtime() function
Time::tm                 internal object used by Time::gmtime and Time::localtime
UNIVERSAL                base class for ALL classes (blessed references)
URI                      Uniform Resource Identifiers (absolute and relative)
URI::Escape              Escape and unescape unsafe characters
URI::URL                 Uniform Resource Locators
URI::WithBase            URIs which remember their base
URI::data                URI that contain immediate data
URI::file                URI that map to local file names
URI::ldap                LDAP Uniform Resource Locators
Unicode::Collate         Unicode Collation Algorithm
Unicode::Normalize       Unicode Normalization Forms
Unicode::UCD             Unicode character database
User::grent              by-name interface to Perl's built-in getgr*() functions
User::pwent              by-name interface to Perl's built-in getpw*() functions
WWW::RobotRules::AnyDBM_File
                         Persistent RobotRules
WWW::RobotsRules         Parse robots.txt files
Win32                    Interfaces to some Win32 API Functions
XS::APItest              Test the perl C API
XS::Typemap              module to test the XS typemaps distributed with perl
XSLoader                 Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code
abbrev                   create an abbreviation table from a list
attributes               get/set subroutine or variable attributes
attrs                    set/get attributes of a subroutine (deprecated)
autouse                  postpone load of modules until a function is used
base                     Establish IS-A relationship with base class at compile time
bigint                   Transparent big integer support for Perl
bignum                   Transparent BigNumber support for Perl
bigrat                   Transparent BigNumber/BigRational support for Perl
blib                     Use MakeMaker's uninstalled version of a package
bytes                    Perl pragma to force byte semantics rather than character 
			 semantics
carp                     warn of errors (from perspective of caller)
charnames                define character names for \N{named} string literal escapes
choose                   choose a variant of a document to serve (HTTP content 
			 negotiation)
constant                 Perl pragma to declare constants
diagnostics              Perl compiler pragma to force verbose warning diagnostics
encoding                 allows you to write your script in non-ascii or non-utf8
fields                   compile-time class fields
fileparse                split a pathname into pieces
filetest                 Perl pragma to control the filetest permission operators
get, head, getprint, getstore, mirror
                         Procedural LWP interface
getopt                   Process single-character switches with switch clustering
if                       use a Perl module if a condition holds
integer                  Perl pragma to use integer arithmetic instead of floating
			 point
less                     perl pragma to request less of something from the compiler
lib                      manipulate @INC at compile time
libnetFAQ                libnet Frequently Asked Questions
locale                   Perl pragma to use and avoid POSIX locales for built-in 
			 operations
lwpcook                  The libwww-perl cookbook
open                     perl pragma to set default PerlIO layers for input and output
ops                      Perl pragma to restrict unsafe operations when compiling
overload                 Package for overloading perl operations
parse_dir                parse directory listing
re                       Perl pragma to alter regular expression behaviour
sigtrap                  Perl pragma to enable simple signal handling
sort                     perl pragma to control sort() behaviour
splitpath

              
strict                   Perl pragma to restrict unsafe constructs
subs                     Perl pragma to predeclare sub names
threads                  Perl extension allowing use of interpreter based threads 
			 from perl
threads::shared          Perl extension for sharing data structures between threads
uf_uristr                Expand URI using heuristics
utf8                     Perl pragma to enable/disable UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC) in 
			 source code
validate                 run many filetest checks on a tree
vars                     Perl pragma to predeclare global variable names (obsolete)
vmsish                   Perl pragma to control VMS-specific language features
warnings                 Perl pragma to control optional warnings
warnings::register       warnings import function

  

Executables - Perl Programs & Utilities

Perl Executables

 
c2ph, pstruct            Dump C structures as generated from cc -g -S stabs
dbiproxy                 A proxy server for the DBD::Proxy driver
dbish                    Interactive command shell for the Perl DBI
diagnostics              Perl compiler pragma to force verbose warning diagnostics
dprofpp                  display perl profile data
embedxpm                 embed xpm pictures into perl source
find2perl                translate find command lines to Perl code
fvwm-menu-directory      builds a directory browsing menu for FVWM
fvwm-menu-headlines      builds headlines menu definition for FVWM
fvwm-menu-xlock          builds xlock menu definition for FVWM
h2ph                     convert .h C header files to .ph Perl header files
h2xs                     convert .h C header files to Perl extensions
htmlclean                a small script to clean up existing HTML
lwp-download             fetch large files from the net
lwp-mirror               Simple mirror utility for WWW
lwp-request, GET, HEAD, POST
                         Simple WWW user agent
lwp-rget                 Retrieve WWW documents recursively
pdldoc                   shell interface to PDL documentation
perl2html                generate Perl documentation in HTML
perlbug                  how to submit bug reports on Perl
perlcc                   generate executables from Perl programs
perldl                   Simple shell for PDL
perldoc                  Look up Perl documentation in pod format.
pl2pm                    Rough tool to translate Perl4 .pl files to Perl5 .pm modules.
pod2html                 translate a POD to HTML
pod2latex                convert pod documentation to latex format
pod2man                  Convert POD data to formatted *roff input
pod2sdf                  converts POD to SDF markup
pod2text                 Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text
pod2usage                print usage messages from embedded pod docs in files
podchecker               check the syntax of POD format documentation files
podlint                  check POD for correctness using Pod::POM
pods2html                translate a tree of PODs to HTML
podselect                print selected sections of pod documentation on standard 
			 output
pom2                     convert POD to Text, HTML, etc., with Pod::POM
ptked                    an editor in Perl/Tk
ptksh                    Perl/Tk script to provide a graphical user interface for 
			 testing Perl/Tk commands and scripts.
rss-to-site              convert a "My Netscape" RSS file to a Sitescooper .site file.
s2p                      Sed to Perl translator
scm2perl                 convert script-fu to perl
scm2scm                  convert script-fu to script-fu
showtable                Show data in nicely formatted columns
sitescooper              download news from web sites and convert it automatically 
			 into one of several formats suitable for viewing on a 
			 Palm handheld.
subs-to-site             convert an AvantGo .subs file to a Sitescooper .site file.
widget                   Demonstration of Perl/Tk widgets
xcftopnm                 convert xcf files to pnm files
xsubpp                   compiler to convert Perl XS code into C code

  

FAQs Index - Frequently Asked Questions

 

 

 

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